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Print and Play Explained in 10 Questions

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Hello aspiring game designers,

The information below is a compilation of information I wish I knew 6 months ago when I began creating my first Print and Play (PnP) game. I am not a graphic designer and this is by no means a comprehensive how-to guide for creating files. It is my hope however, that this guide will help you decide when and why to design a PnP as well as help you avoid some common formatting and design pitfalls.

What the heck is a print-and-play?

A Print-and-Play is a digital file containing all the components of a board game. The file can be shared with enthusiastic players to allow them to print, assemble, and play your game without having to buy a professionally manufactured version.

But I am trying to sell my game, why would I want to let others play my game without giving me money?

There are several reasons for game designers and publishers to use a PnP:

  1. Make additional money

Selling a PnP copy of your game online for a fraction of a retail copy is a way to make money from consumers unwilling or unable to purchase a manufactured copy of the game.* When pricing a PnP, prices are typically low given that customers pay additional costs printing the game. PnP games rarely sell for more than $5 (excluding pen and paper RPG games), but it is still money that you may not otherwise have.

  1. Obtaining Kickstarter/Crowdfunding Pledges

If you are running a crowdfunding campaign for your game, a low level pledge offering a PnP can be a great way to generate pledges. More backers is always a good thing and a PnP is a great way to get people to commit to your campaign and still feel they are receiving a reward without having to worry about shipping a physical object. With all the momentum and excitement of the campaign, they may even bump their pledge levels as the campaign progresses. From my observations, most reward levels for a PnP are between $1 and $5.

  1. Promoting a game

Giving away your PnP for free can be a great promotional tool. Offering the file to reviewers, distributors, publishers, and even the general public can pique their interest and gain support for your project. Offering a PnP also builds credibility as a new game designer, showing the world that you have taken steps to make the game and are not just showcasing the ideas on a napkin.

Debate exists over whether giving out free copies of the PnP will hinder or enhance your sales. I personally cannot speak to this as I did not provide a free version of my PnP, but I recommend that you read James Mathe’s in-depth analysis of the impact giving away a free PnP had on his Kickstarter as well as the counterpoints offered in the comments of his article.

Finally, you have the option of giving away an incomplete version of the PnP for free and offering a finished or higher resolution version as a Kickstarter reward or online sale. That is not to say the free version is unplayable, just that it is missing some artwork or has been formatted in black and white or low resolution. For an example of this, Teale Fristoe offered up both a free and purchasable version for his Kickstarter: Birds of a Feather.

Now you’ve got me excited to make a Print-and-Play. How do I make one?

Now we enter the nitty-gritty of design. Like all creative endeavours, there is no end to debate over best practices. The formatting strategies below are based on my experience creating a PnP for my Kickstarter campaign and the copious amount of trial and error that ensued. Though admittedly, I did not implement all of the strategies listed below. If I create another PnP, this is the information I’d want to know.

What format to use?

I prefer a PDF file. It protects the files from being tampered with and more importantly, maintains the proportions of the images when printing. Users will require Adobe PDF reader to access the file, but it is free and available here. Microsoft Word and Adobe Photoshop both allow for the creation of PDF files and both offer free trials to assist you in creating the files. The majority of print shops are capable of reading and modifying adobe files. If they do not have the software, this would be a big red flag for me to print the game elsewhere.

Another strategy is to save the rules and each component as separate files for faster loading. While I do advocate having your game rules posted online as a separate file, I find creating a separate file for each component creates issues for some printers attempting to print double-sided pages across multiple files simultaneously. Keep all of the components together for easier printing.

When posting the rules online, have the text for the rulebook portion of the PnP formatted into a single column so that smartphones and tablets can simply scroll up and down to access all of the materials. Of course, users will not necessarily be accessing the PnP regularly on their phones, but to quickly check rules, the single column of text is very helpful.

What type of Paper?

Two topics are included here, the first being the type of paper/materials gamers will use to print your game. Paper quality is a decision that players need to make and will be determined by the quality of PnP they are looking to produce. I recommend throwing novice game printers a bone by including a recommended GSM or the components used in the final game version of the game.

The second issue has to do with the fact that the dimensions of printer paper are different around the world. In North America, US letter is the standard size and measures 215.9mm x 279mm (8.5” x 11”). Many other countries use A4 paper measuring 210 x 279 mm (8.27” x 11.69”)

What it boils down to is that US Letter is wider and A4 is longer.

When making a PnP, ensure that your game fits the smaller dimensions of both formats, with the width of A4 and the length of US Letter. That way, the PnP will not have its portions distorted or cut-off regardless of whether it is printed on A4 or US Letter. This uses more paper, but will satisfy most audiences and avoids having to create multiple versions of the PnP.

What about Ink?

A full-colour version of the PnP is a must to show off your game in all its glory, but many price conscious players will look for ways to save money. Some game designers offer a black and white, low ink version to reduce the cost of printing. Designers may even remove all the artwork and just leave the bare bones essentials to reduce cost. A stripped down version is a good way to ensure a wide price gap between the PnP and the retail version, particularly if your game has a low retail cost to begin with.

How about resolution?

When it comes to resolution (how detailed the images are based on the number of dots per inch), the community is split. Supporters of a low resolution PnP (around 150 DPI) state that many printers can’t produce a noticeable difference in quality at higher DPI level and that the file sizes are much smaller. Supporters of higher resolution files (300 DPI) argue it looks nicer and that file size does not matter. The jury is still out on this one, so you will have to make a choice. Of course, if you have the time you can also offer both formats, such as a low resolution version for free and then a high resolution version at a cost or a Kickstarter pledge.

Cool, so how do arrange the images…I always hated Rubik’s cubes?

If possible, have a digital designer do this for you. I was fortunate enough to have a digital designer with a history in print layout, so he just went to town.

If you happen to be a one man/woman show or just don’t have a digital designer, grab yourself a trial version of an image editing software such as Adobe Photoshop/Illustrator/InDesign and remember the following principles:

  1. Keep all cards flush against one another. Leave no blank space in between as this will reduce the number of cuts you have to make. Also, be sure to leave some bleed room around where the cuts are supposed to be made. Bleed room is a space where the background image is consistent and does not change (such as a solid colour or a continuous pattern), which helps to hide any imperfect cuts.

    Note the shared colour and pattern reduces the visibility of imperfect cuts between the indicator markings on the side
    Note the shared colour and pattern reduces the visibility of imperfect cuts between the indicator markings on the side
  2. Place the backs of cards/components on the next page of the PnP. I prefer having them formatted for duplex printing, though from speaking with designers there will always be someone whose printer is unable to print the components properly. I stuck with duplex printing, but if your audience is up in arms, another printer layout may be appropriate.
  3. Keep the cuts for all components square/rectangular whenever possible, even if the manufactured version of the game offers alternative shapes. Cutting anything other than a straight line consistently requires special equipment sold at craft stores or the ability to wield scissors with the steadiness of a member of the bomb squad. Make it easy for players and avoid irregularly shaped components whenever possible.
  4. Avoid placing cut lines across the page. Full or even dotted indicator lines highlight imperfect cuts by showcasing little bits of line on the sides of game components. Instead, use short indicator lines along the page edges for players to line up their cuts. If players really want cut lines, they can use a ruler and draw a line between the indicator marks.

Some argue for indicator lines around oddly shaped components, but as mentioned above, it is better to keep components square whenever possible. The only situation where indicator lines are necessary are if you are trying to save space and cram different game components onto the same page, making the edge indicators interfere with one another. In this case, cut lines are necessary, but make sure that the line colour does not blend in with the components (I recommend black or white depending on the component’s colour)

Note the obnoxious dotted lines. For Crop Cycle we crammed the tokens on the same page as cards. Due to the edge indicators being marked for cutting the cards, we had to use dotted lines
Note the obnoxious dotted lines. For Crop Cycle we crammed the tokens on the same page as cards. Due to the edge indicators being marked for cutting the cards, we had to use dotted lines

Great, I made my Print and Play; now how do I distribute it?

There are lots of ways to distribute a PnP while still limiting access to only certain users. If you are looking to sell the file, there are numerous online stores that are available if you don’t feel like hosting the file yourself. Two popular examples are the War Game Vault and The Game Crafter, though certainly other outlets exist. The appeal of these sites is that they shoulder the hosting cost and offer a turn-key solution as well as exposure in exchange for a portion of the sales.

If you are looking to upload and distribute the file yourself, Drop Box and Google Drive are both popular avenues that allow you to share the PnP through a link. I personally prefer Google Drive as it does not require a login like Drop Box, but for my Kickstarter I offered the PnP through both so supporters had their choice.

How did you learn all this?

Lots of trial and error, discussions with my digital designer Daniel Prairie and a supportive online community. Thank you for the feedback from Board Game Geek and this Facebook community of game designers.

Additional readings

This Board Game Geek post is a huge resource for DIY gamers looking for techniques to fabricate all manner of game components as well as an exhaustive list of free PnP games!

James Mathe’s Analysis on the effects of a freely distributed PnP on his Kickstarter sales and a counterpoint argument by Seth Hiatt of Mayday Games

*There is debate in the industry over whether selling PnP games will reduce retail sales, but I have yet to find a comprehensive survey of the industry on the overall impact offering a PnP has on final sales numbers.

Designing with Materials in Mind

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I recently listened to an interview with Phil Reed, CEO of Steve Jackson that you can find here.

During the lengthy interview, Phil brings up the concept of designing with material costs in mind. In essence, he argues that when designing a game to start by researching and keeping a running total of the component costs and use this background information to dictate what components to include in a game based on the prince point you are aiming for.

Wow, did I wish I had heard of this before I started designing games!

It seems like a common sense notion, but it is not…at least for me. I did not price out components prior to beginning the game design process. For Crop Cycle, I knew I wanted to make a smaller game than Centaurus (i.e not miniatures, a game board, full-box, etc.), but I did not have an outline for exactly how small the game should be. With no previous games under my belt, I also did not have the background knowledge and experience that Phil Reed and other serial game publishers hold.

In hindsight, if I did it again I would begin with researching the manufacturing. The easiest way to get accurate information is to request a few quotes from manufacturers that provide component breakdowns (Panda Games and Wingo both provide this). Alternatively, ask around in game publishing circles such as the Facebook communities here and here.

What I did instead was use the prices of a print-on-demand service as an estimate for the relative differences in cost. For example, I assumed that the comparative difference in cost between cards and tokens when I approached a manufacturer. I did not ask for quotes until later in the process and failed to realize that the price differences of a Print-on-Demand service can vary wildly from a print-run manufacturer.

To use Crop Cycle as an example, the game uses small tokens to use both indicators and as a means of keeping score. For the prototype, I used Circle Shards from The Game Crafter. The cost was cheap and I naively assumed that the cost would be comparable when speaking with manufacturers.

This was a mistake.

It turned out that die-cut tokens can dramatically increase the cost of a project, particularly as some manufacturers lack the required machinery and will outsource the component to another factory. I would have known this if I asked for quotes from manufacturers at the outset rather than waiting around.

Of course, I am not recommending that you pester manufacturers with every conceivable piece component imaginable, but if you have a few manufacturers in mind, ask them for the component costs of common items such as cards, game boxes, dice, and tokens. Then, when you to sit to thrash out the finer points of your game, you will have a much better idea of the overall cost of manufacturing and whether adding an extra cards or dice will still keep the game within the price range you intend. Remember that the MSRP (price retailers sell the game for) is typically 4-5 times your production cost.

Give it a try. Once you have decided to take the leap from designing game to publishing, get your component costs down and then delve into designing your first foray into the world of publishing.

Additional Reading:

James Mathe, a serial kickstarter creator and experienced game publisher wrote three fantastic articles on speaking with manufacturers and the costs of game design. I recommend you read them all!




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Trevor Lehmann: Owner of Convergent Games

You have reached the Convergent Games Blog. An ongoing discussion of games, the people that love them, and the conventions that host them.

If you have are in the habit of running a convention booth or even just attending a games convention, I recommend you check out Convention Coach + Stories, a guide I maintain on how to get the most out of your convention experience.

If you enjoy designing games and want to learn a bit about my experiences, you will find a variety of Developer Diaries.

If you are interested in the games I make, please see Where to Buy Crop Cycle.

If you are interested in the stories of Convergent Games Owner Trevor Lehmann, please see my personal blog.

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